AT-TAWHID: ITS IMPLICATIONS TO REAL HAPPY LIFE
By: Aliyu Mustafa
The Islamic teachings is generally classified into two different categories, namely:
· Usulud-din (The Principles of Religion): which is related to faith and series of beliefs that include belief in the oneness of Allah (Tawhid), Divine Justice (Adl), Prophecy (Nubuwwah), Imamate (Imamah) and Resurrection (Ma’ad).
· Furu’uddin (The Branches of Religion): which is related to the actions of human being, or a ‘mukallaf (compos mentis), one for whom worship is obligatory in the Islamic Sharī’ah. For instance, daily prayers, Fasting, Pilgrimage, etc.
Faith is the most important element in human’s life. Faith is the means by which person chooses to do or not to do something. Faith determines the future both in this world and the hereafter.
Distinction and Priority of the Principles of Religion (Usulud-din) Over Other Islamic Teachings
In a nutshell, we are going to mention some of the basic preliminaries and importance of faith (Aqeeda and Imān) from the perspectives of some Islamic leading figures (both from Sunni and Shi’ite school of thought) as follows:
Sheikh Abdullah Jibrin, in his book writes:
The status of all sciences is based on their topics. Thus the science discussing the Creator (Allah) is the most honorable (of all the sciences studying human beings, plants, etc.) due to the honor of Allah over his creatures.
2- Sheikh Wahid Khurāsānī:
The fruits of this science (Usulud din) are faith (in God) and good deeds, the two (faith and good deeds) are the only means to human prosperity in this world and the hereafter. They also fulfil the personal and social rights:
Whoever does good whether male or female while he is a believer, We will most certainly make him live a happy life.
The method of analysis used in this (science) is proof and logical reasoning which lead to certainty (Yaqeen), there is no room for following the path of doubt and conjecture.
Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom
Do not follow that of which you have no knowledge…
Surely conjecture can never sufficiently replace the Truth.
There is a tradition from Imam Sadiq (AS), which says:
"The most honorable of all obligations, and the most important one of them, is for mankind to recognize the Lord and acknowledge his servitude to Him…"
3- Sheikh Al-Fuzan, in his book, writes as follows:
Aqeeda (belief) is, surely, the grantor of success in this world and in the hereafter, and likewise, it is the rescuer from the torment of God; and for him whose faith is corrupted, he will be the one who loses (a great deal) in this world and the hereafter, and surely that is the clear (and great) loss. And for he who amends and perfects his faith, he shall be happy in this world and hereafter.
4- Sheikh Albānī, in his book, writes as follows:
Aqeeda (Faith) is before everything, because it is the foundation, and when the foundation is intact, strong and firm, its building will be firm and steady without any shaking.
The Most Exalted says:
Have you not regarded how Allah has drawn a parable? A good word is like a good tree: its roots are steady and its branches are in the sky.
The last, but not the least, Imam Ali (AS), in Nahjul Balagha, is also saying:
The knowing God is the foremost of (all the teachings of) the Religion...
Now, the question is what does ‘Kalimatan Toyyibah’ means?
Some commentators understand the," KALIMATAN TAYYIBA" which is also translated as," good word", to mean the divine word of truth, oneness of Allah (Tawhid), and purity which is," LA-ILAH-ILA-ALLAH", There is no God except Allah.
Allama Tabataba’i, in his famous Commentary, says:
…The meaning of "KALIMATAN TAYYIBA", which is compared to a goodly tree, is the true and steady belief.
Imam Ali bin Musa al Riḍā (AS) has quoted lmam Ali (AS) to say that root, trunk and branches are the essential parts of a tree, likewise (if Islam is compared to a goodly tree) sincere belief in the true faith, ingrained in the heart and mind of a believer is the root, declaration is the trunk and practice of the prescribed religious laws is the leaves..
Before we proceed, we deem it appropriate to make it clear that:
The above emphasis on Usulud-din (faith), does not mean we should neglect or look down on Furu’uddin, but rather it is meant for us to consider them as two inseparable couples, that go hand-in-hand.
We should also note that, in this parable, a word of truth and goodness which comes from a true Divine Religion, is like a goodly tree which means that for the word (Tawhid) to be fruitful, firm and stable, it must be well irrigated and developed.
On the other hand, abandoning it will make it to become stunted. The holy Qur’an says:
And he is indeed a failure who stunted it.
Thus, what is meant by ‘Kalimatun Tayyibah’, which is compared to a goodly tree, is the true and sincere belief (Tawhid).
The question, here, is what is the literal and technical meaning of Tawhid?
TAWHID, ITS MEANING AND CLASSIFICATIONS
The Meaning of the Oneness of Allah (Tawhid)
The word Tawhid (monotheism) from the lexical point of view means ‘oneness or unity of the Deity ’.
On the other hand, the technical meaning of Tawhid will be understood after explaining its classifications and divisions. However, a discussion on the different ramifications of this subject, cannot be detailed in this write up. Thus, we are going to discuss it in brief.
By and large, Tawhid is classified into two broad classes, namely:
(a) At-Tawhid-al-Nazari (The Theoretical Monotheism)
(b) At-Tawhid-al-Amali (The Practical Monotheism).
A- At-Tawhid-al-Nazari (Theoretical Monotheism):
Belief in the oneness of Allah meditatively depth in the heart and mind of a believer, which is also divided into three subdivisions as follows:
1- At-Tawhid-al-Dhati (Unity of the Essence): The essential unity comprises the following:
a) The Negation of Plurality
The most obvious meaning of monotheism is belief in the unity of God and negating plurality and multiplicity outside His essence. This is in contrary to polytheism, the belief in two or more gods who are independent and separate in their existence from each other.
b) The Negation of Composition
The second terminological meaning of monotheism is to believe in Divine oneness, and that the essence is simple and not composed of actual or potential parts.
2- At-Tawhid-Sifati (Unity of the Attributes)
The unity of the attributes is the belief in the unity of the attributes of the holy Essence and negation of the idea of classifying attributes as additional part of the pure essence.
3- At-Tawhid-al-‘Af’ali (Unity of the Acts)
The unity of the acts means that God, the Almighty, is self-sufficient in His works. He does not need anybody or anything and no existent can aid Him.
He is independent in his works, while other creatures depend on Him and they do not have any independence of their own.
B- At-Tawhid-al-Amali (Practical Monotheism)
Belief in the oneness of Allah by actions, which emanates from true and sincere belief as actions are the outcome of our thoughts and beliefs. And there is saying that you are what you think. This branch of Monotheism has many subdivisions, which will be discussed in a separate write up, by the grace of Allah.
HOW DO I OBTAIN REAL HAPPY LIFE?
All people search for happiness and constantly try to get rid of pain and escape misery.
Now, the important question is: how do people obtain real happiness, and the good life is in pledge of what?
As believers, for us to answer this question, we have to refer to the revealed words of Allah, and the genuine traditions of His Messenger and see their guidance in this matter.
Belief as a means of Happiness and Safety:
Whoever does good whether male or female while he is a believer, We will most certainly make him live a happy life. 
Here, in this verse, a special reward is promised to the patient believer that he or she, would be raised to live a good clean life. When man or a woman accompanied faith with righteous deeds, God's Grace will revive their life to a new clean life which is of course eternal.
When man feels that he has a great power next to him which cannot be disabled by anything and which can get him all his needs and deliver him from any dejecting, he shall never feel hopeless, or depressed. On the contrary, comfort and delight shall overwhelm him in a way words cannot describe.
This is the state of a believer who has connected himself to Allah and depended on Him. Allah is the Merciful Who takes care of him more than his mother does.
And Allah says: ‘…And if any one puts his trust in Allah, sufficient is (Allah) for him. For Allah will surely accomplish his purpose: verily, for all things has Allah appointed a due proportion.’
Worldly happiness is delusive unless it is accompanied with faith (Aqeeda) and righteous deeds. In fact the two guarantee real and everlasting happiness in this world and hereafter. Good deed is the divine Sharī’ah to which we are guided to by the prophets, Imams, and their proxies.